Джозеф Свобода


A portrait of Джозеф Свобода in the Forties. Before enrolling himself in 1938 in the school for carpenters of Praga and following the Academy of Architecture, Svoboda works for a couple of years in his father's carpentry, where he develops a skill and a handicraft concreteness that will be later a great help during his career.«I will be always thankful to my father that forced me, before I became a scenographer, to the manual work. [ ... ]I am convinced that the theater is and remains the last handicraft work of our time and that of future.»Josef Svoboda, op.cit., pages 18 and 19. His activity of scenographer begins in Praga in 1943, and it's immediately evident as he has already left the nineteenth-century pictorial tradition to his shoulders, influenced instead by the Russian constructivism and by the theories by Гордон Крэг and Adolphe Appia, that will bring him to have a preference for the use of the forms, of the architectural volumes, of the movement, of the effects of phototechnic.
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The Tales of Hoffman, production of the 1946 of the Theater of the 5th of May of Prague. From 1946 he is production manager of the Theater of the 5th of May of Prague, from the 1950 technical-artistic manager in the National Theatre, from the 1968 teacher at the university of Praga, from the 1970 main scenographer in the National Theatre, from the 1973 artistic manager of Laterna Magika, the theatrical group that picks up the synthesis of the Svoboda's scenographic vision, mixing the theatrical language to that of cinema and using the kinetic-architectural movement in a scenographic code that uses multiple screens, curtains of light, mirrors, laser and every kind of projectors.To his directive responsibilities Svoboda has always placed side by side an intense activity of scenographer that has also seen him working in cinema and television in famous productions beside directors of the caliber of Václav Kašlík, Alfréd Radok, Милош Форман, Otomar Krejca, Giorgio Strehler, Henning Brockhaus.
A scene from Sunday of August, production of the 1959 of the National Theater of Ostrava. The activity of Svoboda is confined in Czechoslovakia up to 1958.Since then the regime, in consideration of his fame, cannot prevent him to collaborate more and more often with the most important theatrical productions all of the world. «I knew the theater during the second world war, when among the people of the stage and who was in the room there was a communication with double sense words and with gestures of the resistance.I found then my road, hard and obstinate, that I haven't abandoned anymore. As all those of my generation, I believed too that, at the end of the war it would have been possible to build a better world where only the free art would have reigned sovereign.And, as the widest part of my generation, I lived the disillusion and the disappointment; as most of us I greeted the revolution of November 1989 with relief and with a new hope.»Josef Svoboda, op.cit., page 12.
The collaboration with the
«Стрелер,_Джорджо|Джорджо Стрелер, and I was really pleased when, in 1989, I finally had this occasion.He's, in fact, one of those directors that totally dominate the art of the theater, so properly defined by Germans, with an untranslatable term, Gesammkunstwerk». Josef Svoboda, op.cit..
«I am an architect and a scenographer, and the intense perception of my time is and has always been the base of my job.
And as in the beginning, it seems to me now again that the world and the humanity are in front of an alternative: or the salvation or the downfall.

Words that go up to 1992 but that seem to be written today, those that Josef Svoboda (Čáslav, Boemia, 1920 - Praga 2002) brings in the premise of a text become fundamental for the understanding of the runs of the scenography in the second half of the Nineteenth Century, I segreti dello spazio teatrale / The Secrets of Theatrical Space, (Ubulibri, 1997).
In the plentiful bibliography that concerns him, the synthetic definitions of his personality are not missing.
Here is that by Франко Куадри, theater critic and founder of Ubulibri: «... an artist that has his best characteristic in the conjugation of the absolute with the daily life and pursues the maximum scientificity beginning from a handicraft search.»
A definition that Svoboda, when he red it in the preface of The Secrets of Theatrical Space, probably didn't disapproved.

Используемые материалы

Театр Piccolo, ''Фауст, фрагменты''


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